Publication Ethics


Every person named as an author on a journal paper should have made a major contribution to the work that is being reported. This could apply to the idea or design of the study, the gathering of data, or the analysis and interpretation of the data. As the author or co-author of a piece, you are equally responsible for what is in it. Things to avert:

  1. Gift (guest) authorship is when a person who was not involved in the authoring of the work is added to the list of authors.
  2. Ghost authorship is when someone helps draft a paper, but their name is not on the list of writers.


When someone presents the work of others (data, words, or theories) as his or her own without appropriate attribution.

Committee of Publications Ethics (COPE).

When you refer to someone else's (or your own) work that came before, please make sure you have:

  • Used quotation marks to show that the text was taken directly from another source.
  • It is clearly mentioned as the source of the quote in the text and in the part called "References.
  • Get permission from the original and rights holder before using figures or tables that have already been released.
  • If you talk about the same source more than once in your paper, make sure you cite it correctly each time. Get your paper analyzed for similarities to avoid accidental plagiarism. Be careful not to plagiarize yourself.
  • Self-plagiarism is when you use your own work more than once, without giving credit. If you share the same sets of data more than once as "new" data, it leads to repetition in the academic literature and can throw off meta-analyses. So, if you talk about something you have written before, make sure to cite it.
  • CrossCheck is used to check for plagiarism at Telkom University. Any time during the peer review or production process, an article submitted to a Telkom University journal may be sent to Crosscheck.
  • The journal editor will investigate any claims of plagiarism or self-plagiarism submitted to the journal. We will reach out to all the listed authors of the work and ask for an explanation of the duplicate content if we determine that the claims have merit. Journal editorial board members may be consulted for their input as we continue to assess the manuscript and claims. We will not accept the submission if the explanation is not adequate. Submittals in the future may be rejected at our discretion.
  • Learn more about what is and is not considered plagiarism and how to avoid it by reading the full plagiarism policies and guidelines for authors.

Data Fabrication or Falsification

Manipulation of Information The reliability and validity of your data are crucial to the success of your study. The prevalence of data sharing is increasing the openness of primary data. The instructions for authors of the journal you are submitting should tell you if you need to send raw data as a supplementary file. It is important to be aware that some journals and platforms, such as F1000Research, advocate a more progressive open data policy, requiring the raw data behind a paper to be publicly available.

The journal's editor will assess allegations of data falsification. When necessary, we may ask authors to supply raw data in support of their claims. Members of the journal's editorial board may be contacted for additional review of the paper and claims. We will not accept the submission if the explanation is not adequate. Submittals in the future may be rejected at our discretion.

Competing Interests

  • There should be no hidden biases in the form of hidden research funding, indirect financial support, delivery of equipment or supplies, or other forms of support.
  • For some kinds of studies, like medicine, the journal needs to see proof that the research is ethically okay before it will publish it. Always look at the journal's directions for authors to find out how to show proof of approval from the ethics committee.
  • If an author does not tell the journal about a conflict of interest at the time of submission or during review, and it changes how the results can or cannot be interpreted, the paper could be rejected or pulled.